Skip to main content

Dyslexia and Related Disorders


Characteristics of Dyslexia: What to look for?
Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word reading, reading fluency, and spelling. Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected for the student’s age and educational level and are not primarily the result of language difference factors. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.

The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:

  • Difficulty reading words in isolation
  • Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
  • Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored)
  • Difficulty spelling

It is important to note that individuals demonstrate differences in degree of impairment.

The reading/spelling characteristics are most often associated with the following:

  • Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
  • Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
  • Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory)
  • Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming)

 Consequences of dyslexia may include the following:

  • Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension
  • Variable difficulty with aspects of written language
  • Limited vocabulary growth due to reduced reading experiences

(Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; L. C., Carreker, S., Davis, R., Meisel, P., Spear-Swerling, L., & Wilson, B. (2010). Knowledge and practice standards for teachers of reading. The International Dyslexia Association, Professional Standards and Practices Committee. Retrieved from; Moats, L. C., & Dakin, K. E. (2008). Basic facts about dyslexia and other reading problems. Baltimore, MD: The International Dyslexia Association.)

Texas Dyslexia Handbook 2021

The Texas Dyslexia Handbook is developed and adopted into administrative rule by the Texas State Board of Education. The handbook contains guidelines for school districts to follow as they identify and provide services for students with dyslexia. In addition, information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to various federal laws is included.


Procedimientos sobre la dislexia y trastornos relacionados

The Dyslexia Handbook 2021 Update: Important Changes for Families to Understand

The State’s Dyslexia Handbook was recently updated. This document reviews some of the major changes to help families understand what to expect if they have a child with dyslexia, suspect their child may have dyslexia, or have a student in a grade where dyslexia screening happens for all students. 

Actualización del manual de dislexia 2021: CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES QUE LAS FAMILIAS DEBEN ENTENDER

El Manual de Dislexia del Estado se actualizrecientemente. Este documento revisa algunos de los principales cambios para ayudar a las familias a comprender qué esperar si tienen un hijo con dislexia, si sospechan que su hijo puede tener dislexia o si tienen un estudiante en un grado en el que todos los estudiantes reciben pruebas de detecci de dislexia. 

Talking Books Program

The Talking Book Program (TBP) provides free library services to qualifying Texans with visual, physical, or reading disabilities.

Dyslexia Defined

Excellent resource for parents who want to learn more about Dyslexia.

Region 8 Service Center - Dyslexia Resources

Dyslexia resource page from our local Education Service Center – Region 8 ESC

Chapel Hill ISD Dyslexia Operating Procedures

Local operating procedures for Chapel Hill ISD based off of the Texas Dyslexia Handbook 2021 Update.

Dyslexia FAQ from TEA

The following questions and answers relate to various topics important to dyslexia and related disorders.

Anexo A: Preguntas y respuestas - Actualizado en octubre de 2022

Las siguientes preguntas y respuestas se relacionan con varios temas importantes para la dislexia y los trastornos relacionados.